Himachal Pradesh is situated in the Western Himalayas latitude 30o 22' 40" N to 33o 12' 40" N and longitude 75o 45' 55" E to 79o 04' 20" E covering an area of 55,673 kilometres Himachal Pradesh is a mountainous state with elevation ranging from about 350 metres (1,148 ft) to 6,000 metres (19,685 ft) above the sea level. The drainage system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and glaciers. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. In fact the rivers are older than the mountain system. Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus and Ganges basins The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation.
There is great variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to extreme variation in elevation. The climate varies from hot and sub-humid tropical in the southern tracts to cold, alpine and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges with more elevation. The state has areas like Dharamsala that receive very heavy rainfall, as well as those like Lahaul and Spiti that are cold and almost rainless. Broadly Himachal experience three seasons; hot weather season, cold weather season and rainy season. Summer lasts from mid April till the end of June and most parts become very hot (except in alpine zone which experience mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from 28 °C (82 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F). Winter lasts from late November till mid March. Snowfall is common in alpine tracts (generally above 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) i.e. in the Higher and Trans-Himalayan region).
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant prices, with new Base year i.e. 2011-12, in 2016-17 is estimated at `121.96 lakh crore as against `113.86 lakh crore in 2015-16. At current prices Gross Domestic Product in 2016-17 is estimated at `152.54 lakh crore as against `137.64 lakh crore in 2015-16 shows an increase of 10.8 percent during the year. The Gross Value Added (GVA) at basic prices witnessed a growth of 7.1 percent during 2016-17 (Base 2011-12) against the growth rate of 8.2 percent during the previous year. The per capita income at current prices is estimated at 1,03,870 in 2016-17 as against `94,731 for the previous year recording an increase of 9.6 percent. The per capita income in real terms i.e at 2011-12 prices, is estimated at `82,229 for 2016- 17 as against `77,826 in 2015-16 registering an increase of 5.7 percent. The growth rate for the fiscal year 2017-18 is expected around 6.5 percent as per the advanced estimates.
As per details from Census 2011, Himachal Pradesh has population of 68.65 Lakhs, an increase from figure of 60.78 Lakhs in 2001 census. Total population of Himachal Pradesh as per 2011 census is 68,64,602 of which male and female are 34,81,873 and 33,82,729 respectively. In 2001, total population was 60,77,900 in which males were 30,87,940 while females were 29, 89,960. The total population growth in this decade was 12.94 percent while in previous decade it was 17.53 percent. The population of Himachal Pradesh forms 0.57 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 0.59 percent. The sex ratio (i.e., the number of females per thousand males) of population was recorded as 972, shows slight increase from 968 of the previous census. Total literacy of the State rose to 82.80% from 76.48% in 2001. Himachal Pradesh has a Total Fertility Rate of 1.7, one of the lowest in India. Population density (per Sq. Km.)  of the State is 123.